Thermal physical therapy on lower abdomen: effective when applied to pain.
Metabolism is boosted with an increase in internal body temperature, and accordingly the supply of oxygen into the uterus helps inhibit the generation of pain-causing prostaglandins, ultimately reducing the pain.
An increased temperature provides sedative effects on the area of pain by acting on free nerve endings.
The stimulation of acupoints in the lower part of the abdomen produces moxibustion-like effects.
Generally known as low-frequency therapy. TENS helps block pain signals by stimulating pain nerves through weak-intensity electrical stimulation.
Gate Control Theory
Thick myelinated fibers (α, β) as pain-transmitting nerve fibers respond readily to electrical stimulation, so when stimulated by TENS, the fibers serve to block slowly-transmitted uterine pain signals.
The continued stimulation of pain signals promotes the secretion of endocrine substances for pain relief.
For TENS, the most stimulation frequency, duration and waveform vary depending on the area of pain. The pain-specific TENS is designed to create the most effective stimulation frequency (Hz) and waveform (pulse width) for pain relieve as demonstrated in different related-studies.